托福阅读中的学术文章怎样理解?


时间:2021/3/8
作者:辛达托福代报名小编
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托福阅读中阐明文是比拟常见的一种文章类型,而触及到这种文章类型的标题普通也有较高难度,因而考生需求从文章构造开端就理解阐明文的解题思绪,下面小编会经过实例做详细解读。

 

托福阅读阐明文构造解说

 

普通而言,托福阅读中的阐明文会阐明某个现象,文章的第一段是:引见背景及引出下文;之后的主体段,构造也很明晰:宗旨句Topic sentence + 解释句Explain + 举例子Examples + 总结句Summary。 其实跟我们高考语文有异曲同工之妙。下面来看实例解析:

 

官方真题Official-19 The Roman Army's Impact on Britain

 

In the wake of the Roman Empire's conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., a large number of troops stayed in the new province, and these troops had a considerable impact on Britain with their camps, fortifications, and participation in the local economy. Assessing the impact of the army on the civilian population starts from the realization that the soldiers were always unevenly distributed across the country. Areas rapidly incorporated into the empire were not long affected by the military. Where the army remained stationed, its presence was much more influential. The imposition of a military base involved the requisition of native lands for both the fort and the territory needed to feed and exercise the soldiers' animals. The imposition of military rule also robbed local leaders of opportunities to participate in local government, so social development was stunted and the seeds of disaffection sown. This then meant that the military had to remain to suppress rebellion and organize government.

 

留下 these troops had a considerable impact on Britain;也就是第一句说的是罗马军队对英国有影响。这句话相当于对标题的论述,交代了文章的整个大背景。 之后2~4句其实交代前提,开端详细的说开,要预算军队对平民的影响首先要理解一个事实:兵士不是均匀散布的。那既然不是均匀散布,肯定是有多有少的。所以,第三句接着说了有些中央兵士少:很快融入帝国的区域;第四句说有些中央兵士多影响大:军队驻扎的中央。第5~7句说回重点,也就是what,到底有哪些影响:军营先要征地;然后会抢走当地指导参与政府的时机;之后社会开展受阻,人民不满而对抗,最后军事镇压。

 

首段的第一句话,固然句子很长,但其实只需求抓住构造层次停止剖析就能找到阅读重点。

 

所以总共7句话的段落,分层三个层次,宗旨句+前提阐明+重点论述。事实上,段落第一句就完成了background+introduction双重目的:英国被罗马帝国降服+ 兵士的营地/防御工事以及参与当地经济所形成的影响。

 

Economic exchange was clearly very important as the Roman army brought with it very substantial spending power. …… Such activities had a major effect on the local area, in particular with the construction of infrastructure such as roads, which improved access to remote areas.

 

第二段一开端就交代了经济交流的影响:强大的购置力,以及协助修建根底设备。

 

Each soldier received his pay, but in regions without a developed economy there was initially little on which it could be spent. …… These settlements acted like small towns, becoming centers for the artisan and trading populations.

 

第三段还是在讲经济:刚来的时分兵士有钱没中央花;最后军队驻扎地变成了小镇。

 

The army also provided a mean of personal advancement for auxiliary soldiers recruited from the native peoples, as a man obtained hereditary Roman citizenship on retirement after service in an auxiliary regiment. …… By the later Roman period, frontier garrisons (groups of soldiers) were only rarely transferred, service in units became effectively hereditary, and forts were no longer populated or maintained at full strength.

 

第四段开端讲另一个严重影响:当地人经过当兵取得可继承的罗马公民位置。

 

This process of settling in as a community over several generations, combined with local recruitment, presumably accounts for the apparent stability of the British northern frontier in the later Roman period. It also explains why some of the forts continued in occupation long after Rome ceased to have any formal authority in Britain, at the beginning of the fifth century A.D. The circumstances that had allowed natives to become Romanized also led the self-sustaining military community of the frontier area to become effectively British.

 

第五段,做了个小总结,讲这种交融过程及当地招募促进了北部边境的稳定。

 

经过上文实例解说,置信大家关于托福阅读阐明文的根本构造和解题思绪也有了一定理解。之后大家在经过一些练习加深对阐明文的认识和解题办法,以后面对这类高频阅读文章类型就能顺利解答确保得分了。


小编找到的是作者的一些见解,希望可以为考生们寻找到最好得分方式。这些资料大家可以作为参考吸收到自己的经验谈之中,适合自己的方法就是最好的方法,希望对大家有所帮助。最后,辛达代报希望广大考生们在备考过程中提升自己的语言水平,取得更好的成绩。


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